Particles: が (ga)

An indication of a location

The Japanese particle が (ga) marks the subject of a sentence when it is first introduced to a conversation. が (ga) can also be used for joining sentences, such as the word “but”. However, the Japanese particle が (ga) is technically a different word when using it.

The Japanese particle が (ga), in addition, can also be used as a way to emphasize the subject or distinguish the subject from others and can be used as “but” as well.

Although は (wa) is used when question words such as who and where comes after the topic in the sentence. However, the Japanese particle が (ga) is used when a question word is the subject or part is a subject in a sentence.

Example

白い犬が好きです。
Shiroi inu ga suki desu.
I like white dogs (as opposed to liking other colors of dogs).
この駅で降りたのですが…
Kono eki de oritani no desu ga…
I want to go see a movie, but…

An indication of but/and

In addition, the Japanese particle が (ga) at the end of the sentence or phrase, means “but” or in some cases “and.” Furthermore, the usage of が (ga) as “but” can be used in the same way as “but” in English, and can also be used when wanting to be cautious.

Example

教授と話したいのですが…
Kyoju to hanashitai no desu ga…
I want to talk to the professor, and/but…

Particles: から (kara)

An indication of “from”

When the Japanese particle から (kara) is placed directly after a noun or a certain time phrase, it usually means “from”.

Example

アメリカから来ました。
Amerika kara kimashita.
I come from America.
来週からからゴールデンウイークです。
Raishu kara go-ruden ui-ku desu.
From (Starting) next week, it is Golden Week.

An indication of “because”

If the Japanese particle から (kara) is placed directly after a verb or an i-adjective*, it usually means “because.” Although から (kara) can also be used as “because” with na-adjectives⁑ and nouns, this can only occur if it is paired with endings です (desu / formal) or だ (da / casual).
In addition, から (kara) can be used at the end of a sentence rather than in the middle. As long as から (kara) is still at the end of the phrase, it will be the “reason” part of the sentence.

Example

今日は休日ですから、学校に行きません。
Kyou wa kyujitsu desu kara, gakkou ni ikimasen.
Because today is a holiday, I will not go to school.
静かにしてください。図書館の中にいますから。
Shizuka ni shite kudasai. Toshokan no naka ni imasu kara.
Please be quiet. Since you are inside the library.

An indication of “after”

When the verb comes before the Japanese particle から (kara) and is a -Te form⁂ verb, から (kara) means “after” rather than “because”

Example

勉強してから、出かけます。
Benkyou shite kara, dekake masu.
After studying, I will go out.

*i-adjectives: Always ends with “i”.
⁑na-adjective: Conjugation is same as a noun.
⁂-Te form: a verb with a modified ending

PR

Particles: まで (made)

Period of time

In the case of the Japanese particle まで (made), it described a period of time. In general, the Japanese particle まで (made) was defined as “until”. Grammatically, it is usually attached to the end of nouns and dictionary form of verbs.

Example

この授業は1時半から3時までです。
Kono jyugyo wa ichi ji han kara san ji made desu.
This class is from 1:30 until 3:00.
来年の三月まで教授の授業を受けます。
Rainen no sangatsu made jyugyo o ukemasu.
I’ll take the professor’s seminar until March of next year.

Point in time

In the case of the Japanese particle に (ni) is attached to the Japanese particle まで (made), which indicates the end of an exact point in time. For example, as in “before” or “by the time of”. Simply, the Japanese particle まで (made), in this case, was used for phrases mainly of “until I do something”.

Example

レポートを明日までに提出しなくちゃいけません。
Repo-to o ashita made ni teishutsu shinakucha ikemasen.
I have to submit the homework by tomorrow.
六時までに電話します。
Rokuj made ni denwa shimasu.
I will call you by 6 o’clock.

Indication of a location

In this case, the Japanese particle まで (made) is used to express the time or period related to a location. Usually, the Japanese particle まで (made) was defined as “by”.

Example

明日までにこのレポートを書かなければならないのです。
Ashita made ni kono repo-to o kakanaikereba naranai no desu.
I have to write this report by tomorrow.
東京から京都まではどのぐらい掛かりますか。
Tokyo kara Kyoto made wa dono gurai kakarimasuka?
How long does it take from Tokyo to Kyoto?

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