The Japanese Particle で(de) : Let’s take an article to focus on the 粒子 で (de). 粒子 can be very confusing. But once you get used to them and learn all the different ways to use them, you’ll be able to say exactly what you mean in Japanese.

粒子 are something we don’t really have in English. They fill a lot of 語法 roles, so it can be a bit difficult to know how to use them correctly. In this article, I’ll break で down into four main uses to help you understand how to use it. 

The way I always translate で in my head is “by means of.” This can get a little clunky in certain contexts, and it doesn’t always translate over cleanly. But you’ll see that this translation is pretty consistent with all the different uses of で. Let’s get into the first use.


The Japanese Particle で(de )- Location

で可以標記位置。這是您使用 粒子 で。這也是最容易記住的一種。 

棘手的部分只是記住這不是定向的 粒子。它標誌著發生某事的特定位置。因此,如果您在火車站遇到您的朋友,您可以說

“ Eki de aimashita”(駅で會いました)。

在很多情況下,で在這種情況下可以翻譯為“ at”,但並非總是如此。有時可能是其他字樣,例如“在...上”或“在...中”。で也不能標記存在位置。您必須使用に(ni)在 動詞 いる(iru)和ある(aru)。 

日本粒子で(de)– 使用過的東西


這種用法與我的第一個翻譯“借助”一起使用時效果最好。で可以表示用於 動詞。它可以是一種工具,手段,材料,時間或金錢。讓我們看看這個例子。


“ Basu de ikimashita”(バスで行きました)。 


If you’re talking about means, you could say you spoke using Japanese. That would be

“Nihongo de hanashita” (日本語で話した), or “I spoke by means of Japanese.” 

For materials, you could say a house was made of wood. You would say “Ki de dekiteimasu” (木でできています) or “It was made by means of wood.” 

If you want to talk about the time that was used for something, you could say it took three days to do something. You could say

“Mikka de dekimashita” (三日でできました). 

For saying how much money you spent, you could say you bought something for 500 yen. You would say

“Go-hyaku en de katta” (五百円で買った). 

日本粒子で(de)–Cause or Reason

で can be used to indicate a weak causal relationship between two things. At least, that’s how my 語法 book puts it. Basically, it can be used to mark an explanation for something.

If you didn’t go to work because you were sick, you could say

“Byouki de yasumimashita” (病気で休みました). 

If something was knocked over by a strong wind you could say

“Kaze de ochita” (風で落ちた). 

日本粒子で(de)– Ending Point

This last use is fairly specific. で sometimes marks an ending point or a point of change. If a class ends at 3 o’clock, you can say

“San-ji de owarimasu” (3時で終わります). 

It’s important to remember that this use marks a very specific point in time. It translates pretty well to “at” in English, just like our location use. If you want to talk more about a length of time, you can use “kara” (から) and “made” (まで). With these, you could say “This class goes from 1 o’clock to 3 o’clock,” by saying

“Kono kurasu wa ichi-ji kara san-ji made desu” (このクラスは一時から3時までです). 

You can’t express the same passage of time with で. It is a specific point.


日本粒子で(de)– Other Uses of で

This is not an exhaustive list of the uses of で. It is however, probably the four most common uses. Learning these uses will help you have a fairly good grasp on this 粒子, but I would like to just gloss over a few more uses you might hear and you should probably learn to use. 

The first is で used as a sentence connector. Some people will use this kind of like the word “and.” If you’ve been studying 粒子, you’ll know that the 粒子 for “and” don’t really work for connecting sentences together. で does work, in some situations. 

You can put で after a na-形容詞 or noun to connect it to something else in the same way we use “and.” You can say

元氣 de…” (元気で…) meaning “He is well and…” 


“Koukousei de…” (高校生で…) meaning “She’s a high school student and…”

You may also see で attached to a lot of other 語法 structures. The one that comes to mind for me is “de aru” (である) which means roughly “to be,” but is used differently than just “aru.” 

The more you listen for something, the more you’ll hear it, so keep an ear out for で. It’s a very common 粒子 in Japanese, and knowing how to use it will definitely be a plus as you continue learning.

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[摘要] 12最常用的日本粒子完美指南