The Japanese Particle で(de) : Let’s take an article to focus on the 입자 그리고 (de). 입자 can be very confusing. But once you get used to them and learn all the different ways to use them, you’ll be able to say exactly what you mean in Japanese.
입자 are something we don’t really have in English. They fill a lot of 문법 roles, so it can be a bit difficult to know how to use them correctly. In this article, I’ll break で down into four main uses to help you understand how to use it.
The way I always translate で in my head is “by means of.” This can get a little clunky in certain contexts, and it doesn’t always translate over cleanly. But you’ll see that this translation is pretty consistent with all the different uses of で. Let’s get into the first use.
The Japanese Particle で(de )- Location
그리고 위치를 표시 할 수 있습니다. 이것은 가장 일반적인 방법 중 하나입니다. 입자 그리고. 기억하기 가장 쉬운 방법이기도합니다.
이것으로 까다로운 부분은 이것이 방향성이 아니라는 것을 기억하는 것입니다. 입자. 그것은 어떤 일이 일어난 특정 장소를 표시합니다. 기차역에서 친구를 만났다면
“에키 데 조 마시타”(駅 で 会 い ま し た).
이 상황에서 종종 で를 "at"로 번역 할 수 있지만 항상 그런 것은 아닙니다. 때로는 "on"또는 "in"과 같은 다른 단어 일 수 있습니다. 또한 존재의 위치를 표시 할 수 없습니다. 로 위치를 표시하려면 に (ni)을 사용해야합니다. 동사 い る (iru) 및 あ る (aru).
일본 입자 で (de) – 사용되는 것
이 사용법은 나의 첫 번역,“수단”에 가장 잘 어울립니다. 그리고 할 때 사용되는 것을 나타낼 수 있습니다 동사. 도구, 수단, 재료, 시간 또는 돈이 될 수 있습니다. 이에 대한 몇 가지 예를 살펴 보겠습니다.
악기 (여기서는 반드시 음악은 아님)의 경우 버스를 타고 어딘가에 갔다고 말할 수 있습니다. 당신은 말할 것입니다
“바스 데 이키 마시타”(바스 데스 行 き ま し た).
이것을“버스로 갔다”고 번역 할 수도 있습니다. 다시 말하지만, 영어에서는 어리석지 만 이해하기 쉽습니다.
If you’re talking about means, you could say you spoke using Japanese. That would be
“Nihongo de hanashita” (日本語で話した), or “I spoke by means of Japanese.”
For materials, you could say a house was made of wood. You would say “Ki de dekiteimasu” (木でできています) or “It was made by means of wood.”
If you want to talk about the time that was used for something, you could say it took three days to do something. You could say
“Mikka de dekimashita” (三日でできました).
For saying how much money you spent, you could say you bought something for 500 yen. You would say
“Go-hyaku en de katta” (五百円で買った).
일본 입자 で (de) –Cause or Reason
で can be used to indicate a weak causal relationship between two things. At least, that’s how my 문법 book puts it. Basically, it can be used to mark an explanation for something.
If you didn’t go to work because you were sick, you could say
“Byouki de yasumimashita” (病気で休みました).
If something was knocked over by a strong wind you could say
“Kaze de ochita” (風で落ちた).
일본 입자 で (de) – Ending Point
This last use is fairly specific. で sometimes marks an ending point or a point of change. If a class ends at 3 o’clock, you can say
“San-ji de owarimasu” (3時で終わります).
It’s important to remember that this use marks a very specific point in time. It translates pretty well to “at” in English, just like our location use. If you want to talk more about a length of time, you can use “kara” (から) and “made” (まで). With these, you could say “This class goes from 1 o’clock to 3 o’clock,” by saying
“Kono kurasu wa ichi-ji kara san-ji made desu” (このクラスは一時から3時までです).
You can’t express the same passage of time with で. It is a specific point.
일본 입자 で (de) – Other Uses of で
This is not an exhaustive list of the uses of で. It is however, probably the four most common uses. Learning these uses will help you have a fairly good grasp on this 입자, but I would like to just gloss over a few more uses you might hear and you should probably learn to use.
The first is で used as a sentence connector. Some people will use this kind of like the word “and.” If you’ve been studying 입자, you’ll know that the 입자 for “and” don’t really work for connecting sentences together. で does work, in some situations.
You can put で after a na-형용사 or noun to connect it to something else in the same way we use “and.” You can say
"겐키 de…” (元気で…) meaning “He is well and…”
“Koukousei de…” (高校生で…) meaning “She’s a high school student and…”
You may also see で attached to a lot of other 문법 structures. The one that comes to mind for me is “de aru” (である) which means roughly “to be,” but is used differently than just “aru.”
The more you listen for something, the more you’ll hear it, so keep an ear out for で. It’s a very common 입자 in Japanese, and knowing how to use it will definitely be a plus as you continue learning.